www.real-programmer.com | Solutions Architect at Google Cloud

By Christoph Bussler and Anand Jain

This blog discusses Cloud Spanner table interleaving from a developer’s perspective: what are interleaving tables, when to use this schema design concept, some edge cases and gotchas.

tl;dr: interleaving tables are a query performance optimization tool for specific join query patterns. Interleaving tables are not a data modeling concept even…

by Christoph Bussler and Sireesha Pulipati


Multi-tenancy is a software architecture pattern in which a single or few instances of an application serve multiple tenants or customers, often hundreds or thousands. This approach is fundamental to cloud computing platforms where the underlying infrastructure is shared among multiple organizations. Basically, multi-tenancy can be thought of as a…

A tutorial for setting up a multi-cloud VPN


This blog is a tutorial on how to set up a VPN between Google Cloud and AWS, create multi-zone subnetworks in each cloud and test any-to-any connectivity. For part of the setup this blog follows the community tutorial Google Cloud HA VPN interoperability guide for AWS and cites verbatim from…

by Christoph Bussler, Szabolcs Rozsnyai

What is zero downtime database migration and replication?

Zero downtime database migration and replication (Database Migration — Concepts and Principles (Part 1), Database Migration — Concepts and Principles (Part 2)) refers to migrating or replicating data from a source database to a target database without impacting the client’s access of the source database in terms of availability or…

(to be more precise: for almost no-one)


Online database migration is an important — if not the most important — approach when migrating between schemas, between databases, or between data centers or clouds. There are many variations to online database migration (aka, zero downtime database migration): a popular one is dual-write and in my opinion a —…

Christoph Bussler

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